Tuesday, April 14, 2015

The other side of the coinHannibal Barca The Carthaginian general Hannibal (247-182 BCE) was one of the greatest military leaders in history. His most famous campaign took place during the Second Punic War (218-202), when he caught the Romans off guard bycrossing the Alps. Youth (247-219) Melqart (Heracles) on a coin of Hannibal, perhaps with his own features When Hannibal (in his own, Punic language: Hanba'al, "mercy of Ba'al") was born in 247 BCE, his birthplace Carthagewas about to lose a long and important war. The city had been the Mediterranean's most prosperous seaport and possessed wealthy provinces, but it had suffered severe losses from the Romans in the First Punic War (264-241). After Rome's victory, it stripped Carthageof its most important province, Sicily; and when civil war had broken out in Cartage, Rome seized Sardinia and Corsica as well. These events must have made a great impression on the young Hannibal. He was the oldest son of the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, who took the ten-year old boy to Iberia in 237. There were several Carthaginian cities in Andalusia: Gadir ("castle", modern Cádiz), Malkah ("royal town", Málaga) and New Carthage (Cartagena). The ancient name of Córdoba is unknown, although the Punic element Kart, "town", is still recognizable in its name. Map of the Second Punic War in Spain Hamilcar added new territories to this informal empire. In this way, Carthage was compensated for its loss of overseas territories. The Roman historian Livymentions that Hannibal's father forced his son to promise eternal hatred against the Romans. This may be an invention, but there may be some truth in the story: the Carthaginians had excellent reasons to hate their enemies. When Hamilcar died (229), Hamilcar's son-in-law, the politicianHasdrubal the Fair, took over command. The new governor further improved the Carthaginian position by diplomatic means, among which was intermarriage between Carthaginians and Iberians. Hannibal married a native princess. It is likely that the young man visited Carthage in these years. Saguntum, citadel In 221, Hasdrubal was murdered and the Carthaginian soldiers in Iberia elected Hannibal as their commander, a decision that was confirmed by the government.The twenty-six-year old general returned to his father's aggressive military politics and attacked the natives, capturing Salamanca in 220. The next year, he besieged Saguntum, a Roman ally. Since Rome was occupied with the Second Illyrian War and unable to support the town, Saguntum fell after a blockade of eight months. Already in Antiquity, the question whether the capture of Saguntum was a violation of a treaty between Hasdrubal and the Roman Republic was discussed. It is impossible to solve this problem. The fact is, however, that the Romans felt offended, and demanded Hannibal to be extradited by the Carthaginian government. From Saguntum to Cannae (218-216) While the negotiations about his fate were going on, Hannibal continued to extend Carthage's territory: he appointed his brother Hasdrubal (not to be confused with Hannibal's brother-in-law) as commander in Iberia, and in May 218 he crossed the river Ebro in order to complete the conquest of the Iberian peninsula. On hearing the news, Rome declared the Second Punic War and sent reinforcements to Sicily, where they expected the main Carthaginian attack. Col de Montgenèvre Hannibal interrupted his campaigns in Catalonia, and decided to win the war by a bold invasion of Italy before the Romans were prepared. In a lightning campaign, he crossed the Pyrenees with an army of 50,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry and 37 elephants; next, he crossed the river Rhône (at Arausio, modern Orange), ferrying his elephants across the water on large rafts. Thence, by a heroic effort, made difficult by autumn snow, he crossed the Alps, probably taking the Col du Mont Genèvre. In October 218, 38,000 soldiers and 8,000 cavalry had reached the plains along the river Po in the vicinity of the Italian town Turin. Map of the Second Punic War, first stage The plains along the Po were inhabited by Gauls who had recently been subjected to Rome, and were only too willing to welcome Hannibal and throw off the Roman yoke. The Romans were aware of the danger that Hannibal might entice the Gauls into rebellion, and immediately sent an army to prevent this. However, in a cavalry engagement at the river Ticinus (east of Turin), the Carthaginians defeated their opponents. Immediately, some 14,000 Gauls volunteered to serve under Hannibal. Thanks to their help, Hannibal won a second victory at the river Trebia (west of modern Piacenza), defeating a Roman army that had been supplemented with the troops that had been sent t

Saturday, August 9, 2014

............François Clouet,

François Clouet,  (born c. 1515, /20, Tours, Fr.—died 1572Paris), French painter

The son of Jean Clouet, he was known also under his father’s byname, Janet, a circumstance that created a persistent confusion between the works of these two painters. François worked with Jean possibly as early as 1536 and replaced him in 1540 as official painter to Francis I. He continued in this office, serving under Henry II, Francis II, and Charles IX.

Sunday, September 22, 2013

White African

In 1487, an important breakthrough was made when Bartolomeu Dias discovered the southern tip of Africa and rounded the Cape of Good Hope. This journey was significant; it proved, for the first time, that the Atlantic and Indian oceans were connected. The trip, in turn, sparked a renewed interest in seeking out a trade route to India. The first Catholic missionaries who came to Siam were probably the chaplains of Portuguese ships in the 16th century sent to Ayutthaya bringing the officers of Portugal to enter into relations with Siam. There are no documents to confirm this hypothesis. There is a written history prepared by foreigners stating that in 1544, Antonio de Paiva, a Portuguese, had traveled to Ayutthaya in the time of Phra Jairaja. Mean while, and carried out by Roman Catholic nobles, was the most violent episode of the warfare. Estimates of the victims ranged from 5,000 to 10,000. Included among them was Huguenot leader Gaspard de Coligney, who had arranged for a short-lived peace agreement between Calvinists and Catholics in France in 1570. French bishop The St. Batholomew's day massacare..On the night of August 23, 1572, thousands of French Calvinists (Huguenots) were massacred in Paris and other French cites in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. In the preceding decades, Calvinism had spread rapidly in France despite fierce persecution. The French Wars of Religion had begun in 1562 and continued until 1594. .
Christianity was affected by the invasion of Burma and the fall of Ayutthaya in 1767. With the advent of the present dynasty in 1782, the situation of the Mission improved gradually. The situation of the Catholic Mission at the end of the 18th century was not so favorable, since an expulsion of the missionaries took place by the order of King Taksin (1768-1782). King Rama I (1782-1809) sent for the missionaries because he wished to begin negotiations for an alliance with foreign countries and to promote trade with these countries as had been done before. In 1785, there were 413 Siamese Catholics of Portuguese origin at the Santa Cruz Church in Thonburi, 379 Cambodian Catholics at the Immaculate Conception Church in Samsen district as well as 580 Annamite Catholics. M. A. Launay described the general situation of the Mission of Siam in the beginning of the 19th century stating that in 1802 the total number of Christians in the Vicariate was estimated to be about 2,500 and in 1811 about 3,000. It may be noted that during the time of Msgr. Garnault (1786 1811), the restoration of the Mission was begun. In 1827, the decree of Pope Leo XII gave ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Singapore to the Apostolic Vicar of Siam. Propaganda Fide confirmed this jurisdiction over Singapore to the Apostolic Vicar of Siam on May 12, 1834. In 1835, about 1,500 Annamite Christians, fleeing from persecution, settled in Samsen and asked asylum from Bangkok. This was the origin of the St. Francis Xavier Church in Samsen. The church of the immaculate conception is located just off Samsen Road, close to the Chao Phraya River.

It was built in 1837 on the site of a previous version dating from 1674, by the Portuguese. One of the buildings is now a museum of holy relics Church of the Immaculate Conception Description The original church, now a museum, houses the church's collection of antiques and relics. It was built during the reign of King Narai to serve the Portuguese living in the area. During the reign of King Rama I (1782-1809), a civil war broke out in Cambodia and 500 Cambodians sought refuge in the area. Today, the descendants of Portuguese and Cambodian settlers live in the vicinity of Church of the Immaculate Conception. The present church facing the Chao Phraya river was built in 1837.

St. Francis Xavier

The first Catholic missionaries who came to Siam were probably the chaplains of Portuguese ships in the 16th century sent to Ayutthaya bringing the officers of Portugal to enter into relations with Siam. There are no documents to confirm this hypothesis.= 1. สมมุติฐาน
There is a written history prepared by foreigners stating that in 1544, Antonio de Paiva, a Portuguese, had traveled to Ayutthaya in the time of Phra Jairaja and had been given an audience and had conversation about religion with the King. The King was converted and baptized, being given the Portuguese name of Dom Joâo. There is no evidence to confirm this claim. The first missionary who mentioned Siam in writings about his missionary task was St. Francis Xavier himself. He mentioned Siam in his four letters written from Sancian, although his real purpose was to go to China. However, St. Francis Xavier did not go either to China or to Siam because he died on December 3, 1552.

FX Exposition 1994-95, Goa India. Next Expo 2014-15
Death & Burials:
St. Francis died on December 3, 1552, at age of 46. He was first buried on Shangchuan Dao's beach (China). His intact body was taken from the island in February 1553. It was temporarily buried (2nd time) in St. Paul's church in Malacca on March 22, 1553. His body was once again removed shortly after April 15, 1553 by his friend Pereira and took it at a his place
On December 11, 1553 (after one year from death) the incorrupt body of Francis Xavier was shipped to Goa. The body is now in the Basilica of Bom

Tuesday, April 9, 2013

.......St. Francisxavier's school in Bangkok.

History The facade of St. Paul's Cathedral by Wilhelm Heine, 1854 Built from 1582 to 1602[1] by the Jesuits, the cathedral was one of the largest Catholic churches in Asia at the time, and the royalty of Europe vied with each other to bestow upon the cathedral the best gifts. With the decline in importance of Macau, which was overtaken as the main port for the Pearl River Delta by Hong Kong, the cathedral's fortunes similarly ebbed, and it was destroyed by a fire during a typhoon on the 26 January 1835. The Fortaleza do Monte overlooks the ruin.

Tuesday, December 11, 2012

......WOW! Too!

African Violet..Lotus flower in the shallow pond has made corresponding to African violet...Oh mom my mother used this to sing this song for me… who who hoo how does that much concern exile you know me?” In the court she stills her shoes tied laces on the white tennis shoes all day hey hey they rapidly hey you she not to this bound that on the earth not live about to the earth Some special good but guess what ? Sucking on her natural bosom find, mother for mother’s virtues excellent, None but for some and yet all different. O, mickle is the powerful grace that lies.

Saturday, October 13, 2012

King Rama I fought another war with the Pharmas who were again trying to wrest control of Siam. During this war in 1785 at the ‘Battle at Thalang’, Phuket forever earned its place in the annals of modern Thai history. This is a summone from the king said unto the hunter, Mine affe’te’e. To live a consistant liave this pursuing of happiness, Constantin Falcon who taken care of the security action in that magic garden. Burmese invaders had attacked by land and sea and captured several cities on the west coast of Thailand. How did this could happened ? Yes! It has been there all the time in The King’s temple. How does the law of reincarnation enacted ? When birth is not the beginning of life, nor is death its ending. While preparing to defend his capital then located in the village of Thalang. the governor died leaving the forces defending Phuket leaderless, When birth is not the beginning of life, nor is death its ending, it is drawn again to the gateway of birth. Linked with the law of causation. Agreegate of past experience are held by the souls, which, on the death of the body, retires for a period of rest and recuperation, out-manned and out-gunned . Realizing they were out numbered, Chan, the governor’s widow and her sister Mook "also known as the Tao Sisters" disguised the island’s women as men., Bound to the wheel of begetting the forces of which it has not yet overcome, The great number of soldiers defending the island confused the Burmese, and cleverly devised attacks on their flanks and rear weakened their resolve. Believing the island had been reinforced from Bangkok and running short of food and provisions the Burmese decamped and sailed away. A grateful king conferred royal titles on the two brave and resourceful body, retires for a period of rest and recuperation. Bound to the wheel of begetting the forces of which it has not yet overcome, It is drawn again to the gateway of birth. Linked with the law of causation, may be understand as the principle of law. Thus, thoughts and actions react upon an actions react upon the individual for good or evil according to their nature. That is whatever they are used constructively or the other hand, distructively, wheather they are energized by the forces of love or hate in lives;”All what we are is the result of what we have thought.” If a man speaks or acts with a pure thought, happiness follows him like a shadow. These have been fundamental tenets of Hinduism and its end the highest knowledge and the final peace and the supreme self- consciousness reigns eternally, and all sense of separateness is lost.
.Now the stream reverses its direction. The advent of man provide a vehicle for the direct descent from the spirit of a fragment of divinity, the ego of higher self, And man become soul, first, from, personality to reunion with the higher self. Seconly expanding self awareness to reunion with the spirit. And thrdly, the final and supreme at one-meant from the spirit to reunion with the absolute .“ Truly no one can tell what it is, not because it is nothing because when you are about to reunion of the spirit, that is something ” So much greater and grander than anything known, and that is not even an absolute yet. To reaffirm that the soul is immortal, and that it grows in statue as man’s spiritual evolution, proceed and achieve at one- meant with the source of light.
            the person who feels the value of life, as if, the wholeness is within reasonably reachable. “Dieu merci sait qui le veuille.” God only know. Dulcine’e,you are duty to conduct with honour. Le tempsperdu ne seretrouve, lost time will never found again. The seed of arboreal negligence would become windfall profit due to the government's taxation. A’ cohesion of cour joie. “A bon vin point d’ enseigne.” Good wine need no bush.
Lotus flower in the shallow pond has made corresponding to African violet

Courtesy of Thong D. and Patume flashing unthinkable thought along with the logical conclusion. Among the perpetual congnitive behavior, still there are some lotuses, these stamen were analysed one by one with conscientious observation. Consisting of the ovary, stigma and style, like any young tree in the strom can’t stand up against the wind. Had it happened now, that, the pollination occurred in the rainy day while the blubs presenting digniy and pride.First the mother superior dreamt about the galaxy, An enculturation  of planet enrooted the Uranus’ axis,  it was Jupitor himself had made this exit.

Saturday, February 26, 2011


This self-governing enforcement of regulation is a key moment, not only in Hollywood’s history, but in the way that regulation has been used to create a standard of acceptance for the sexual mores and behaviour of women. This is the story of my family which I have had for all these years with hilarious innuendo I see as spectral clues to the light comic tone the filmmakers wanted to convey, and the chortling of morphine mixture between lactose and more of sadistic
Shy? Click !

            utilization they did not want to hold back onto this national anthem, anyhow. The movies have been illuminated by moving comparisons of the cut and uncut versions of Pretty Face. In the uncut version, there is a sense of Lily’s strength and sexual power. Part of this is heralded by the music in the film, especially a key theme rendition of ‘St Francis Blues. And the Thompsons have succeeded in getting truncated process train. A bus line with a maximum speed of just because. Built in 2016 by ….. Fund. The annual budget This incident occurred after the official inauguration The inauguration. Of fice of Minister of transportation. ...